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有關蒙頭的迷思

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  在我唸大學的時候,我開始研讀有關蒙頭這事,想要找到根據來證明現今神不再要求蒙頭了,因為我看不見再有蒙頭的需要。但當我深入研究蒙頭這事,卻發現有許多關乎蒙頭的迷思,被宣稱為真理。這些錯誤的教導見於許多釋經書之中。這些迷思在講臺上被人傳講,也由一個基督徒傳給另一個,他們對那段聖經已有自己的一套見解,這些迷思更有助他們「清晰」理解自己的看法,但其實這些都沒有聖經或者歷史的根據。這些說法很經常被重複提說,使人相信它們都是真確的,並且不去查證。畢竟,那些重複這些說法的人當中,有許多都有博士學位。結果,教會基於錯誤百出的資料就在蒙頭這課題上教導、實行和反對。一般而言,我發現在蒙頭這課題上缺乏有素質和具學術水平的研究。

  以下是有關蒙頭其中幾個較為值得注意的迷思,以及為甚麼它們是謬誤的:

迷思1:只有妓女才會不蒙着頭四處走動,保羅不想人家把基督徒婦女與妓女聯想在一起

  這個迷思一直流傳,是因為缺乏具良好學術水平的歷史研究。有些人把古代希臘的哥林多城和在羅馬帝國統治下的哥林多城混為一談。這就如同在距今一千年之後,有人研究殖民時期的美國之生活狀態,然後說在公元二千年的美國就是那樣的。

  哥林多古城連同其廟妓的制度早在公元前146年被摧毀。凱撒(Julius Caesar)在一百年後重建哥林多。哥林多前書寫成的時候,即廟妓制度被摧毀二百年後,哥林多已是一個徹頭徹尾的羅馬城巿。在公元頭一個世紀,此時羅馬帝國的生活狀態在許多方面跟現今的社會相像的程度,比起歷史上其他時期更甚。婦女享有許多方面的「自由」,是她們從前所沒有的。她們被允許接受教育,在公眾場合說話,以及主動提出離婚。婦女使用避孕用具、墮胎、行使「性自由」。(Pandora's Daughters: The Role and Status of Women in Greek and Roman Antiquity, by Eva Cantarella, John Hopkins University Press, 1987, p.140,141, 148)

  使徒行傳提及在幾個城巿中「尊貴的」婦女,以及保羅站在亞略巴古當中講說時的婦女。這時期雖然有些婦女戴上頭帕或其他蒙頭的東西,但許多非基督徒婦女並沒有在頭上蒙上頭帕。在這時期,精巧的髮型也流行起來。

迷思2:哥林多前書第十一章所述的蒙頭是基於風俗習慣

  在新約聖經中並沒有這樣的命令,指示教會要依從非基督徒的做法。身為基督徒,我們不要跟從世界的樣式,而是要跟從耶穌和祂的命令。從對第一世紀羅馬帝國婦女的描述,你們可以看見哥林多前書第十一章有關蒙頭的教訓並非基於哥林多的文化,也不是基於猶太文化。在猶太人的文化中,男人和女人都要蒙頭。在那個時候,猶太男人很容易因着他們的闊邊帽而給人認出來。

  哥林多前書第十一章中婦女蒙頭是一種基督徒才有的實行。女人要蒙頭和男人不要蒙頭的命令是基於創造,而非基於文化(7-10節)。

迷思3:哥林多人戴上頭帕是因為那是「東方」(中東)的習俗

  這個迷思的一部份早已被人提出,但由於那些人對地理的無知,使它一直存在於釋經書中。哥林多是位於希臘,而希臘是歐洲的一部份,而不是在中東!再者,在哥林多的教會似乎主要由非猶太人所組成。這不是一個以猶太人佔絕大多數的教會。(哥林多前書第十二章二節那裏說:「你們作外邦人的時候,隨事被牽引受迷惑,去服事那啞吧偶像,這是你們知道的。」也見使徒行傳第十八章六節。)

迷思4:蒙頭的教訓只是單單寫給在哥林多的教會

  這個迷思在講述的時候,通常也同時猜測在哥林多的教會發生了甚麼事,並且為何要寫下蒙頭的指示,以及為甚麼現今並不適用。這個迷思忽視了一個事實,在哥林多前書第十一章裏面關乎蒙頭的命令是聖經,是神的話。這卷哥林多前書是寫給所有的基督徒,而不是僅僅寫給哥林多人(林前一2;十一16)。我們忽視聖經中的一段經文,並說這段經文對於我並不適用,這在屬靈上是很危險的。

  許多學者猜測為甚麼這些東西被寫下來,並很自信地把他們的猜測當作事實來陳述。這是高等批判(higher criticism)的一部份。你若看見一些措辭像「這可能是」、「明顯地」、「最有可能」、「顯然」等,就要小心,不要隨便接受一連串的推論作為真確的。這通常是人的猜想,而不是真理。

迷思5:保羅是那發出這命令的人(而不是神發出的)

  這個迷思直接攻擊聖經的默示。這個迷思通常用以下的措辭作為幌子:「保羅所說的是這樣」、「保羅所寫的是說……」。這使到聖經中的命令變成人的教導。哥林多前書的作者是神,而不是保羅。保羅不過是秘書,而不是哥林多前書的作者。是聖靈告訴保羅要寫些甚麼,保羅不是以他自己的權威來寫。「若有人以為自己是先知或是屬靈的,就該知道我所寫給你們的是主的命令。」(林前十四37)並沒有歷史或其他的根據可以說這是保羅而不是神所發出的命令。

迷思6:頭髮就是作蓋頭的──正如新國際譯本(NIV)的註腳

  這是一個曲解聖經的例子,使聖經說出某人想說的東西。希臘文並不能好像新國際譯本註腳所翻譯的。在希臘文有些字被加上去或刪減,從而得到這樣的解釋。新國際譯本並不是一本逐字對譯的譯本,裏頭有許多地方顯露出譯者的偏見,這是其中一個。我從來未曾在歷史或研讀希臘文時找到這種解釋的根據。從歷史和希臘文可以相當清楚地看見,哥林多前書第十一章是說女人應該有兩種遮蓋──長頭髮和頭帕。

迷思7:關乎蒙頭的這段經文是指到公開的敬拜

  哥林多前書第十一章肯定包括了公開的敬拜,但它並沒有說這是唯一實行的場合。聖經也吩咐我們要不住地禱告,不僅是在教會中禱告。初期教會整個星期都實行蒙頭,不僅是在星期日。

  這個迷思因着譯者和釋經者的偏見而一直存在。在新國際譯本的標題「敬拜的禮節」(還有其他譯本的其他標題),是譯者所加上去的,在希臘文原文中並沒有這標題。基督徒婦女在任何靠近神的時候都要蒙着頭,無論是在家中或是在公開的敬拜。男人則無論是在家中或公眾場合中禱告時,都不要蒙着頭。

迷思8:順服使女人低於男人

  神在十一及十二節對這個迷思的回應是:「然而照主的安排,女也不是無男,男也不是無女。因為女人原是由男人而出,男人也是由女人而出,但萬有都是出乎神。」神告訴我們,男人和女人都是必需的,也是同等的重要。丈夫不是獨立於妻子而運作,倒過來也一樣。男人和女人都有神所賜予同等重要的角色。男人沒有女人就不能存在,因為他們是由女人而生。女人沒有男人也不能存在,因為她們是由男人所授精而孕育的。身為基督徒,神想我們把男性和女性看成同等重要,不是低一等或高一等。

迷思9:由教會定立的特定頭帕或蒙頭物的款式是唯一真正蓋頭之物

  這個迷思出現在一些過分管制蒙頭樣式的羣體,他們在神的命令上加了人的吩咐。傳統來說,門諾會(Mennonites)和亞米緒教派(Amish)訂定了某種款式的蓋頭物作為唯一有效的蒙頭方式。這樣,一種特定的蒙頭款式就被看為蒙頭的象徵,但其他蒙頭的款式卻被排除在外,並稱之為「保護性的頭飾」,或者被稱為「屬世的」。例如,許多保守的門諾會和亞米緒教派中,男人不顧哥林多前書第十一章的吩咐,在大部份時間用有邊的帽子蒙着他們的頭。儘管那頂帽子通常比起女人的蓋頭物所遮蓋頭部的範圍更大,他們的頭卻並不視為被遮蓋着,因為他們所戴的帽子並不是他們羣體所要求女人蒙頭的那種款式。對於許多門諾會的信徒來說,門諾會那種白色無邊小帽款式的蓋頭物有更多含義,不僅僅只是為着禱告和講道時用的蓋頭物。在形狀、大小、和細帶子相對地小的改動,可以用來把一個人識別和歸類為自由派和保守派。有些人用這些款式上微細的分別來判斷一個人的靈性。

  神沒有明確說明蓋頭物的款式,也沒有給予一些細節,說應該怎樣蒙頭,這一點是很值得注意的。應該是哪一種款式?是一種掛着的頭帕、或是一頂有邊的帽子、或是無邊的小帽?神沒有詳細指明。聖經所強調的是一個動詞,即「蒙頭」(covering the head),而不是一個名詞,即「蓋頭物」(the head covering)。這一點是意義深長的。因着沒有詳細指明款式,神給予我們使用各種款式和顏色的蓋頭物的自由。神給予我們自由,蓋頭物可以有創意和有吸引力的,不一定是要舊式的、單調沉悶的、或者使人覺得尷尬的。

  教會裏的人需要感覺到教會的焦點首先是在遵從神在哥林多前書第十一章中關乎蒙頭的命令,其次才是蒙頭的款式。若有人(特別是年輕人)覺得教會的焦點主要在蒙頭的款式,其次才是遵從哥林多前書第十一章的命令,他們就會抗拒,並拒絕蒙頭,把它看成一種不正確的教訓,或者是聖經中並沒有要求的一種教訓。

 

  在我研讀蒙頭這課題的時候,我很驚訝地發現,我們曾聽人說過的大量基督徒所提供的資料都是不真實的。現時的情況似乎是這樣,儘管今天在基督徒中間普遍受過高等教育,但許多人仍然依賴其他人的研究或意見,而不是自己着手研究。我向你提出一個挑戰,就是你自己去研讀哥林多前書第十一章及其他課題,猶如你在搜求隱藏的珍寶(箴二4)。你若接受這個挑戰,就會對你所發現的感到詫異。不要僅僅因為「其他所有人」都認為蒙頭在今天並不適用,而忽視哥林多前書第十一章。

 

譯者註:

1. 這篇文章譯自邁倫.霍斯特(Myron Horst)所著的Myths About the Headcovering 一文,已得作者允許譯成中文,並在網上發表,讓更多基督徒在蒙頭這事上得幫助,謹此致謝。歡迎引用或轉載,但請保留原來的版本,不要自行刪改,並請附加文章(英文及中文譯本)出處的網址: http://www.biblicalresearchreports.com/headcoveringmyths.php

2. 「迷思」是英文myth的音譯,一般譯作「神話」,但在這篇文章的意思是指「沒有事實根據的觀點」,故譯作「迷思」。

3. 高等批判(Higher Criticism)是指一班不信主的學者,用他們的學術來批判聖經是不是由某人寫的,是不是那個時代的作品,目的是要質疑聖經就是神的話語這個權威。

4. 門諾會(Mennonites)和亞米緒教派(Amish)都是源於教會歷史上稱為重浸派(Anabaptist)的基督徒團體。




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The Missing Key to Spiritual Maturity

In the fall of 2007, Willow Creek church released the results of their three million dollar research into the effectiveness of their church program and 30 other churches. They were shocked to find that they were not bringing people to spiritual maturity. What they thought would produce spiritual maturity was not. They believed that the more people participated in church programs the greater spiritual maturity it would produce. They found that the amount of involvement in church programs had no correlation with the depth of someone’s spiritual maturity. What makes this mistake so significant is that Willow Creek is a church that has 12,000 churches in their Willow Creek Association, and has taught thousands of pastors how to “do church” to produce church growth. To some degree, Willow Creek Church has influenced how most churches today “do church”. “And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch.” (Matthew 15:14)


What is the answer to helping people come to maturity in Christ? Take another look at the Great Commission. The answer is there. We have been focusing on the first part of the commission – evangelism – and have overlooked the second half thinking we know what it is saying. But look again at what Jesus says in giving us the Great Commission: “Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: 20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, [even] unto the end of the world. Amen.” (Matthew 28:19) The missing key to spiritual maturity is teaching others Christ’s commands in the New Testament and teaching them to follow the commands. An excellent subject for Bible study is to take each of Christ’s commands and study them. There is a list of Christ’s commands on this website.



Discipleship, Spiritual Maturity, and Christ’s Commands

Jesus defines a disciple as one who follows His commands. A person who is spiritually mature is one who knows Christ’s teachings in the New Testament and who follows them with all his or her heart, soul, mind and strength. The following passages of Scripture over and over stress the importance of doing what Jesus says to do:

 


Matthew 7:22 Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works? 23 And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity. 24 Therefore whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them, I will liken him unto a wise man, which built his house upon a rock: 25 And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell not: for it was founded upon a rock. 26 And every one that heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them not, shall be likened unto a foolish man, which built his house upon the sand: 27 And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell: and great was the fall of it.


Matthew 19:17 And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? [there is] none good but one, [that is], God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments.


John 14:15 If ye love me, keep my commandments.


John 14:21 He that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me: and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him. 22 Judas saith unto him, not Iscariot, Lord, how is it that thou wilt manifest thyself unto us, and not unto the world? 23 Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him. 24 He that loveth me not keepeth not my sayings: and the word which ye hear is not mine, but the Father's which sent me.


See Also

Myths About the Headcovering
There are a lot of false teachings about the head covering, false teachings that have been passed from commentary to commentary, from professor to student, from pastor to lay person. We have heard them so often many believe them to be true, but research shows clearly that they are false.

The Christian Woman's Headcovering: The Style and How Much Should It Cover?
In 1 Corinthians 11, God gives the command that a woman is to cover her head when praying or prophesying and that a man is to have his head uncovered. But should a headcovering be a certain style or color? How much should it cover?

The Effects of the Headcovering on Divorce
Is there a correlation between Christian women wearing a headcovering as is instructed in 1 Corinthians 11 and the divorce rate among Christians? Is it true that the headcovering teaching is not important, has no value for today, and is to be ’spiritualized’ and reinterpreted? Or is the Church reaping the consequence of ignoring the headcovering command in the high rate of divorce and the destruction of families among Christians?

The Headcovering Directory
A directory of articles, stores and testimonies on the Christian head covering.

かぶり物(ベール)についての神話
私は大学時代に、かぶり物(祈りのベール)について調べ始めました。今日もはや、神は(姉妹に)かぶり物を課してはおられないということの論拠を見い出そうとしたのです。実際私は、かぶり物は必要じゃないと思っていました。

有关蒙头的迷思
在我念大学的时候,我开始研读有关蒙头这事,想要找到根据来证明现今神不再要求蒙头了,因为我看不见再有蒙头的需要。但当我深入研究蒙头这事,却发现有许多关乎蒙头的迷思,被宣称为真理。


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かぶり物(ベール)についての神話
私は大学時代に、かぶり物(祈りのベール)について調べ始めました。今日もはや、神は(姉妹に)かぶり物を課してはおられないということの論拠を見い出そうとしたのです。実際私は、かぶり物は必要じゃないと思っていました。

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Myths About the Headcovering
There are a lot of false teachings about the head covering, false teachings that have been passed from commentary to commentary, from professor to student, from pastor to lay person. We have heard them so often many believe them to be true, but research shows clearly that they are false.

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