Biblical Research Reports on Divorce and Remarriage, Veiling, Headcovering, the Best Bible, House Churches, and more

有关蒙头的迷思

View English Version | 查看繁體中文版 | 日本語版を見る

在我念大学的时候,我开始研读有关蒙头这事,想要找到根据来证明现今神不再要求蒙头了,因为我看不见再有蒙头的需要。但当我深入研究蒙头这事,却发现有许多关乎蒙头的迷思,被宣称为真理。这些错误的教导见于许多释经书之中。这些迷思在讲台上被人传讲,也由一个基督徒传给另一个,他们对那段圣经已有自己的一套见解,这些迷思更有助他们「清晰」理解自己的看法,但其实这些都没有圣经或者历史的根据。这些说法很经常被重复提说,使人相信它们都是真确的,并且不去查证。毕竟,那些重复这些说法的人当中,有许多都有博士学位。结果,教会基于错误百出的数据就在蒙头这课题上教导、实行和反对。一般而言,我发现在蒙头这课题上缺乏有素质和具学术水平的研究。

以下是有关蒙头其中几个较为值得注意的迷思,以及为甚么它们是谬误的:

迷思1:只有妓女才会不蒙着头四处走动,保罗不想人家把基督徒妇女与妓女联想在一起

这个迷思一直流传,是因为缺乏具良好学术水平的历史研究。有些人把古代希腊的哥林多城和在罗马帝国统治下的哥林多城混为一谈。这就如同在距今一千年之后,有人研究殖民时期的美国之生活状态,然后说在公元二千年的美国就是那样的。

哥林多古城连同其庙妓的制度早在公元前146年被摧毁。西泽(Julius Caesar)在一百年后重建哥林多。哥林多前书写成的时候,即庙妓制度被摧毁二百年后,哥林多已是一个彻头彻尾的罗马城巿。在公元头一个世纪,此时罗马帝国的生活状态在许多方面跟现今的社会相像的程度,比起历史上其他时期更甚。妇女享有许多方面的「自由」,是她们从前所没有的。她们被允许接受教育,在公众场合说话,以及主动提出离婚。妇女使用避孕用具、堕胎、行使「性自由」。(Pandora's Daughters: The Role and Status of Women in Greek and Roman Antiquity, by Eva Cantarella, John Hopkins University Press, 1987, p.140,141, 148)

使徒行传提及在几个城巿中「尊贵的」妇女,以及保罗站在亚略巴古当中讲说时的妇女。这时期虽然有些妇女戴上头帕或其他蒙头的东西,但许多非基督徒妇女并没有在头上蒙上头帕。在这时期,精巧的发型也流行起来。

迷思2:哥林多前书第十一章所述的蒙头是基于风俗习惯

在新约圣经中并没有这样的命令,指示教会要依从非基督徒的做法。身为基督徒,我们不要跟从世界的样式,而是要跟从耶稣和祂的命令。从对第一世纪罗马帝国妇女的描述,你们可2

以看见哥林多前书第十一章有关蒙头的教训并非基于哥林多的文化,也不是基于犹太文化。在犹太人的文化中,男人和女人都要蒙头。在那个时候,犹太男人很容易因着他们的阔边帽而给人认出来。

哥林多前书第十一章中妇女蒙头是一种基督徒才有的实行。女人要蒙头和男人不要蒙头的命令是基于创造,而非基于文化(7-10节)。

迷思3:哥林多人戴上头帕是因为那是「东方」(中东)的习俗

这个迷思的一部份早已被人提出,但由于那些人对地理的无知,使它一直存在于释经书中。哥林多是位于希腊,而希腊是欧洲的一部份,而不是在中东!再者,在哥林多的教会似乎主要由非犹太人所组成。这不是一个以犹太人占绝大多数的教会。(哥林多前书第十二章二节那里说:「你们作外邦人的时候,随事被牵引受迷惑,去服事那哑吧偶像,这是你们知道的。」也见使徒行传第十八章六节。)

迷思4:蒙头的教训只是单单写给在哥林多的教会

这个迷思在讲述的时候,通常也同时猜测在哥林多的教会发生了甚么事,并且为何要写下蒙头的指示,以及为甚么现今并不适用。这个迷思忽视了一个事实,在哥林多前书第十一章里面关乎蒙头的命令是圣经,是神的话。这卷哥林多前书是写给所有的基督徒,而不是仅仅写给哥林多人(林前一2;十一16)。我们忽视圣经中的一段经文,并说这段经文对于我并不适用,这在属灵上是很危险的。

许多学者猜测为甚么这些东西被写下来,并很自信地把他们的猜测当作事实来陈述。这是高等批判(higher criticism)的一部份。你若看见一些措辞像「这可能是」、「明显地」、「最有可能」、「显然」等,就要小心,不要随便接受一连串的推论作为真确的。这通常是人的猜想,而不是真理。

迷思5:保罗是那发出这命令的人(而不是神发出的)

这个迷思直接攻击圣经的默示。这个迷思通常用以下的措辞作为幌子:「保罗所说的是这样」、「保罗所写的是说……」。这使到圣经中的命令变成人的教导。哥林多前书的作者是神,而不是保罗。保罗不过是秘书,而不是哥林多前书的作者。是圣灵告诉保罗要写些甚么,保罗不是以他自己的权威来写。「若有人以为自己是先知或是属灵的,就该知道我所写给你们的是主的命令。」(林前十四37)并没有历史或其他的根据可以说这是保罗而不是神所发出的命令。 3

迷思6:头发就是作盖头的──正如新国际译本(NIV)的脚注

这是一个曲解圣经的例子,使圣经说出某人想说的东西。希腊文并不能好像新国际译本脚注所翻译的。在希腊文有些字被加上去或删减,从而得到这样的解释。新国际译本并不是一本逐字对译的译本,里头有许多地方显露出译者的偏见,这是其中一个。我从来未曾在历史或研读希腊文时找到这种解释的根据。从历史和希腊文可以相当清楚地看见,哥林多前书第十一章是说女人应该有两种遮盖──长头发和头帕。

迷思7:关乎蒙头的这段经文是指到公开的敬拜

哥林多前书第十一章肯定包括了公开的敬拜,但它并没有说这是唯一实行的场合。圣经也吩咐我们要不住地祷告,不仅是在教会中祷告。初期教会整个星期都实行蒙头,不仅是在星期日。

这个迷思因着译者和释经者的偏见而一直存在。在新国际译本的标题「敬拜的礼节」(还有其他译本的其他标题),是译者所加上去的,在希腊文原文中并没有这标题。基督徒妇女在任何靠近神的时候都要蒙着头,无论是在家中或是在公开的敬拜。男人则无论是在家中或公众场合中祷告时,都不要蒙着头。

迷思8:顺服使女人低于男人

神在十一及十二节对这个迷思的回应是:「然而照主的安排,女也不是无男,男也不是无女。因为女人原是由男人而出,男人也是由女人而出,但万有都是出乎神。」神告诉我们,男人和女人都是必需的,也是同等的重要。丈夫不是独立于妻子而运作,倒过来也一样。男人和女人都有神所赐予同等重要的角色。男人没有女人就不能存在,因为他们是由女人而生。女人没有男人也不能存在,因为她们是由男人所授精而孕育的。身为基督徒,神想我们把男性和女性看成同等重要,不是低一等或高一等。

迷思9:由教会定立的特定头帕或蒙头物的款式是唯一真正盖头之物

这个迷思出现在一些过分管制蒙头样式的羣体,他们在神的命令上加了人的吩咐。传统来说,门诺会(Mennonites)和亚米绪教派(Amish)订定了某种款式的盖头物作为唯一有效的蒙头方式。这样,一种特定的蒙头款式就被看为蒙头的象征,但其他蒙头的款式却被排除在外,并称之为「保护性的头饰」,或者被称为「属世的」。例如,许多保守的门诺会和亚米绪教派中,男人不顾哥林多前书第十一章的吩咐,在大部份时间用有边的帽子蒙着他们的头。尽管那顶帽子通常比起女人的盖头物所遮盖头部的范围更大,他们的头却并不视为被遮盖着,因为他们所戴的帽子并不是他们羣体所要求女人蒙头的那种款式。对于许多门诺会的信徒来说,门诺会那种白色无边小帽款式的盖头物有更多含义,不仅仅只是为着祷告和讲道时用的盖头物。在4

形状、大小、和细带子相对地小的改动,可以用来把一个人识别和归类为自由派和保守派。有些人用这些款式上微细的分别来判断一个人的灵性。

神没有明确说明盖头物的款式,也没有给予一些细节,说应该怎样蒙头,这一点是很值得注意的。应该是哪一种款式?是一种挂着的头帕、或是一顶有边的帽子、或是无边的小帽?神没有详细指明。圣经所强调的是一个动词,即「蒙头」(covering the head),而不是一个名词,即「盖头物」(the head covering)。这一点是意义深长的。因着没有详细指明款式,神给予我们使用各种款式和颜色的盖头物的自由。神给予我们自由,盖头物可以有创意和有吸引力的,不一定是要旧式的、单调沉闷的、或者使人觉得尴尬的。

教会里的人需要感觉到教会的焦点首先是在遵从神在哥林多前书第十一章中关乎蒙头的命令,其次才是蒙头的款式。若有人(特别是年轻人)觉得教会的焦点主要在蒙头的款式,其次才是遵从哥林多前书第十一章的命令,他们就会抗拒,并拒绝蒙头,把它看成一种不正确的教训,或者是圣经中并没有要求的一种教训。

 

在我研读蒙头这课题的时候,我很惊讶地发现,我们曾听人说过的大量基督徒所提供的数据都是不真实的。现时的情况似乎是这样,尽管今天在基督徒中间普遍受过高等教育,但许多人仍然依赖其他人的研究或意见,而不是自己着手研究。我向你提出一个挑战,就是你自己去研读哥林多前书第十一章及其他课题,犹如你在搜求隐藏的珍宝(箴二4)。你若接受这个挑战,就会对你所发现的感到诧异。不要仅仅因为「其他所有人」都认为蒙头在今天并不适用,而忽视哥林多前书第十一章。

 

译者注:

1. 这篇文章译自迈伦.霍特斯(Myron Horst)所著的Myths About the Headcovering 一文,已得作者允许译成中文,并在网上发表,让更多基督徒在蒙头这事上得帮助,谨此致谢。欢迎引用或转载,但请保留原来的版本,不要自行删改,并请附加文章(英文及中文译本)出处的网址:

http://www.biblicalresearchreports.com/headcoveringmyths.php
http://cedarpublisher.blogspot.com/2009/06/blog-post_22.html

2.「迷思」的英文myth的音译,一般译作「神话」,但在这篇文章的意思是指「没有事实根据的观点」,故译作「迷思」。

3. 高等批判(Higher Criticism)是指一班不信主的学者,用他们的学术来批判圣经是不是由某人写的,是不是那个时代的作品,目的是要质疑圣经就是神的话语这个权威。

4. 门诺会(Mennonites)和亚米绪教派(Amish)都是源于教会历史上称为重浸派(Anabaptist)的基督徒团体。




Additional Information




Enjoyed This Article?

Subscribe to our newsletter and find out when we add new content.

Email
Name

Subjects

10





Subscribe to our Newsletter!

Find out when we add new content.

Email
Name




The Missing Key to Spiritual Maturity

In the fall of 2007, Willow Creek church released the results of their three million dollar research into the effectiveness of their church program and 30 other churches. They were shocked to find that they were not bringing people to spiritual maturity. What they thought would produce spiritual maturity was not. They believed that the more people participated in church programs the greater spiritual maturity it would produce. They found that the amount of involvement in church programs had no correlation with the depth of someone’s spiritual maturity. What makes this mistake so significant is that Willow Creek is a church that has 12,000 churches in their Willow Creek Association, and has taught thousands of pastors how to “do church” to produce church growth. To some degree, Willow Creek Church has influenced how most churches today “do church”. “And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch.” (Matthew 15:14)


What is the answer to helping people come to maturity in Christ? Take another look at the Great Commission. The answer is there. We have been focusing on the first part of the commission – evangelism – and have overlooked the second half thinking we know what it is saying. But look again at what Jesus says in giving us the Great Commission: “Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: 20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, [even] unto the end of the world. Amen.” (Matthew 28:19) The missing key to spiritual maturity is teaching others Christ’s commands in the New Testament and teaching them to follow the commands. An excellent subject for Bible study is to take each of Christ’s commands and study them. There is a list of Christ’s commands on this website.



Discipleship, Spiritual Maturity, and Christ’s Commands

Jesus defines a disciple as one who follows His commands. A person who is spiritually mature is one who knows Christ’s teachings in the New Testament and who follows them with all his or her heart, soul, mind and strength. The following passages of Scripture over and over stress the importance of doing what Jesus says to do:

 


Matthew 7:22 Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works? 23 And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity. 24 Therefore whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them, I will liken him unto a wise man, which built his house upon a rock: 25 And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell not: for it was founded upon a rock. 26 And every one that heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them not, shall be likened unto a foolish man, which built his house upon the sand: 27 And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell: and great was the fall of it.


Matthew 19:17 And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? [there is] none good but one, [that is], God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments.


John 14:15 If ye love me, keep my commandments.


John 14:21 He that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me: and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him. 22 Judas saith unto him, not Iscariot, Lord, how is it that thou wilt manifest thyself unto us, and not unto the world? 23 Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him. 24 He that loveth me not keepeth not my sayings: and the word which ye hear is not mine, but the Father's which sent me.


See Also

Myths About the Headcovering
There are a lot of false teachings about the head covering, false teachings that have been passed from commentary to commentary, from professor to student, from pastor to lay person. We have heard them so often many believe them to be true, but research shows clearly that they are false.

The Christian Woman's Headcovering: The Style and How Much Should It Cover?
In 1 Corinthians 11, God gives the command that a woman is to cover her head when praying or prophesying and that a man is to have his head uncovered. But should a headcovering be a certain style or color? How much should it cover?

The Effects of the Headcovering on Divorce
Is there a correlation between Christian women wearing a headcovering as is instructed in 1 Corinthians 11 and the divorce rate among Christians? Is it true that the headcovering teaching is not important, has no value for today, and is to be ’spiritualized’ and reinterpreted? Or is the Church reaping the consequence of ignoring the headcovering command in the high rate of divorce and the destruction of families among Christians?

The Headcovering Directory
A directory of articles, stores and testimonies on the Christian head covering.

かぶり物(ベール)についての神話
私は大学時代に、かぶり物(祈りのベール)について調べ始めました。今日もはや、神は(姉妹に)かぶり物を課してはおられないということの論拠を見い出そうとしたのです。実際私は、かぶり物は必要じゃないと思っていました。

有關蒙頭的迷思
在我唸大學的時候,我開始研讀有關蒙頭這事,想要找到根據來證明現今神不再要求蒙頭了,因為我看不見再有蒙頭的需要。但當我深入研究蒙頭這事,卻發現有許多關乎蒙頭的迷思,被宣稱為真理。


You Also Might Be Interested in...

Music for Children
The music that you and your children sing and listen to is more important than you may realize. The songs that we sing and listen to permanently shape our understanding of who God is.

God's Commands on Bible Study
A Bible study on God’s commands about Bible Study.

Singleness - a Peek at God's Perspective
It is interesting to look at marriage and singleness from God’s perspective. It gives us a bigger and clearer picture.

How to Become a Christian
Are you a Christian? If not, here’s how to become one!

The Guaranteed Christian Success Formula
Do you wonder how to have a successful Christian life? Are you sick of the many plans and guidelines that you hear? Here’s the key to true success in the Christian life.

Is Music Amoral?
There is a debate among Christians: is music itself amoral? That question, while appropriate to ask, is actually viewing music from the wrong perspective, or more specifically a too limited perspective. It is amazing how much of the debate centers around the opinions of people and very little is based on the Bible.

The Key for Lasting Revival
The way to have a lasting revival seems to be elusive. There have been many revivals in the past, but few are still bearing fruit today. Here is the answer from the Bible on how to have lasting revival.

God's Commands on Authority
A Bible study on God’s commands on authority.

Contrary to Popular Opinion, College or Seminary Education is not Beneficial for Pastors
God is quite clear in many passages of Scripture, and through the example of Jesus, that higher education is not beneficial for pastors. Ignoring all that God has written about the subject, most churches require at least a college degree if not a seminary degree for their pastor.

A Summary of the Immorality, Fraud and False Teachings of Bill Gothard
Bill Gothard is perhaps the biggest false teacher, sexual predator, hypocrite, and fraud in modern conservative circles.

Paul Said What?
You often hear the phrase ’Paul said...’ Yet, is that really accurate?

To read this article on the Internet, visit http://www.biblicalresearchreports.com/headcoveringmyths_s_chinese.php
Copyright © 2003-2015 by Biblical Research Reports. All Rights Reserved.
You are free to copy, redistribute, and reprint this article free of charge. If you post an article on your website, we would appreciate a link back to this website.